An Expansive Guide on How to Decode Every Ingredient on your Skincare Label

For a complete list of scientific references, click here.

These ingredients are present in Ebanel products:

0-9

1,2 Hexanediol

A-E

Acer Saccharum (Sugar Maple) Extract
Acetyl hexapeptide-8
Acrylates/C l0-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer
Allantoin
Allium Cepa (Onion) Bulb Extract
Aloe Vera
Althaea Rosea Flower Extract
Angelica Polymorpha Sinesis Root Extract
Anthemis Nobilis Flower (Chamomile) Oil
Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil
Arnica Montana Flower Extract
Ascorbic Acid
Aspalathus Linearis Leaf Extract
Bambusa Arundinacea Stem Extract
Bentonite
Betula Platyphylla Japonica Bark Extract
BHT
Biotin
Bisabolol
Borage Officinalis (Borage) Oil (Omega-3 and Omega-6)
Butylene Glycol
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter)
C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate
Calamine
Camphor
Caprylhydroxamic Acid
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
Carbomer
Carica (Papaya) Fruit Extract
Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Oil
Cellulose
Centella Asiatica Extract
Ceramide
Ceratonia Siliqua Gum
Cetyl Ethylhexanoate
Chlorphenesin
Cholesterol
CI 15985
CI 16255
Citric Acid
Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Fruit Extract
Citrus Limon (Lemon) Fruit Extract
Cocamidopropyl Betaine
Cyclopentasiloxane
Dead Sea Mud (Sea Silt)
Decapeptide-12
Dimethicone
Dimethyl Isosorbide
Dimethyl MEA
Diospyros Kaki Leaf Extract
Dipotassium Glycyrrhizinate
Dipropylene Glycol
Disiloxane
Disodium EDTA
D-Panthenol
Dromiceius (Emu) Oil
Epilobium Angustifolium Leaf Extract
Ethoxydiglycol
Eucalyptus Globulus (Eucalyptus) Leaf Oil
Eyeliss

F-J

Ferulic Acid
Fomes Officinalis (Mushroom) Extract
Frankincense Serrata Oil
Glucosamine
Glycerin
Glyceryl Stearate/PEG 100 Stearate
Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract
Grapeseed Extract
Haloxyl
Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Extract
HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer
Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil
Honey Extract
Hydrogenated Polydecene
Hydrolyzed Collagen
Hydroxyacetophenone
Hydroxyethylcellulose
Hydroxypinacolone Retinoate
Illicium Verum (Anise) Fruit Extract
Iron Powder
Isopropyl Alcohol
Isopropyl Myristate
Jojoba Oil

K-O

Kaolin
Laureth-7
Lavandula Officinalis (Lavender) Oil
Lecithin
Leontopodium Alpinum Cell Culture Extract (Edelweiss)
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
Malpighia Glabra (Acerola) Fruit Extract
Malus Domestica Fruit Cell Culture Extract
Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Oil
Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil
Methyl Perfluorobutyl Ether
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)
Mineral Oil
Myristoyl Hexapeptide-4
Neopentyl Glycol Dicaprylate/Dicaprate
Niacinamide
Nicotinoyl Tripeptide-1
Nonapeptide-1
Oenothera Biennis (Evening Primrose) Oil
Oligopeptide-1
Olive Leaf Extract

P-T

Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-12
Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-14
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7
PEG/PPG-18/18 Dimethicone
PEG-10 Isostearate
PEG-20 Glyceryl Triisostearate
PEG-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
Persea Grattisima (Avocado) Oil
Phenoxyethanol
Plankton Extract
Polyacrylamide C13-14 Isoparaffin
Polyethylene
Polymethylsilsesquioxane
Polysilicone-11
Polysorbate 20
Polysorbate 80
Portulaca Oleracea Extract
Potassium Hydroxide
Potassium Sorbate
Propanediol
Propylene Glycol
Prunus Amygdalus (Sweet Almond) Oil
Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6)
Pyrus Malus (Apple) Fruit Extract
Resveratrol
Retinol
Rhododendron Ferrugineum Leaf Cell Extract
Rhus Semialata Gall Extract
Rosa Canina Fruit (Rosehip) Oil
Rubus Suavissimus (Raspberry) Leaf Extract
Saccharum Officinarum (Sugar Cane) Extract
Salicylic Acid
Salix Nigra (Willow) Bark Extract
Sodium Cocoyl Apple Amino Acids
Sodium Hyaluronate
Sodium Lauroyl Glutamate
Sodium Polyacrylate
Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) Callus Culture Extract
Sorbitol
Sulfur
Talc
Titanium Dioxide
Tocopherol
Tocopheryl Acetate
Tourmaline
Trehalose
Trideceth-10
Triethanolamine

U-Z

Vaccinium Myrtillus Fruit/Leaf Extract
Viscum Album (Mistletoe) Leaf Extract
Vitamin B5
Vitamin E
Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Callus Culture Extract
Volcanic Ash
Water
Wine Extract
Xanthan Gum
Zinc Oxide


Let's begin:

1,2 Hexanediol
A colorless and odorless liquid known for its ability to retain moisture. It is often used as a synthetic preservative and moisture binding agent in many cosmetics. In addition to increasing the shelf life of products and moisturizing the skin, 1,2 Hexanediol has topical benefits including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and non-irritating properties.

A

Acer Saccharum (Sugar Maple) Extract
An extract derived from the bark and sap of the sugar maple tree. The extract is rich in hydroxy acids which are effective at removing dead cells and bacteria from the skin, as well as, repairing the cell damage caused by free radicals. This makes it effective for restoring damaged skin and preventing the formation of future wrinkles and blemishes.


Acetyl hexapeptide-8
Also sometimes known as Argireline, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 is a synthetically-derived peptide that functions as a muscle relaxer. It is primarily used in cosmetics to reduce wrinkles and fine lines that result from repeated facial expressions. When applied to problem areas like around the eyes, mouth, or forehead, the peptide will relax the underlying muscles. Fewer contractions of those muscles will help to reduce skin wrinkling in that area.


Acrylates/C l0-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer
Due to its somewhat unique chemical structure, this synthetic polymer is very effective at combining oil and water-based products. It also acts as a thickener to give a creamier texture. In the cosmetic industry, it is used to provide a smooth and well blended consistency, as well as, prevent the separation of products like moisturizers, skin cleansers, and sunscreens.


Allantoin
Allantoin is a chemical compound that is derived from the root of the comfrey plant. It is known for its ability to lock in moisture, soothe skin irritations, and to assist in the renewing of the skin by removing dead skin cells and promoting the development of new cells. When used topically, Allantoin is effective for treating skin irritations such as burns, abrasions, and eczema, as well as, moisturizing the skin.


Allium Cepa (Onion) Bulb Extract
This extract is made from the juices of onions. When used topically, the extract functions as a cleanser and an anti-inflammatory. By removing dirt, bacteria, and other irritants from the pores, this extract is effective in preventing the formation of blemishes, as well as, removing toxins from insect bites that can cause itching, pain, and irritation. The anti-inflammatory properties make it an effective remedy for reducing the visibility of scars and stretch marks.


Aloe Vera
Native to desert climates, Aloe Vera is a cactus-like plant that is packed with antioxidants and vitamins. This plant and its extracts can offer many different skin benefits when applied topically. Some of Aloe Vera's uses include moisturizing the skin, soothing sunburn, treating acne, reducing the visibility of stretch marks, and improving skin elasticity.

Other names: Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Juice or Gel.


Althaea Rosea Flower Extract
Alternatively known as Hollyhock, this plant was originally from China, but can now be found all over the world. The flower extract is often used in cosmetics due to its anti-inflammatory properties. This makes it effective in treating skin irritations like acne, redness, eczema, psoriasis, and many others.


Angelica Polymorpha Sinesis Root Extract
More commonly known by the names female ginseng or Dong Quai, this plant is highly esteemed in Japanese traditional medicine for both its health and beauty benefits. The extract is known for anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, as well as, a high antioxidant content. This makes topical applications of the extract effective in treating skin inflammation like acne, swelling, and eczema, reducing the signs of aging caused by free radicals, and cleansing the skin of bacteria.


Anthemis Nobilis Flower (Chamomile) Oil
Derived from the flowers of the German chamomile plant, this essential oil is widely used in cosmetics due to its non-irritating nature, as well as, a slew of skin benefits. The oil is a useful antiseptic, reduces unwanted inflammation and redness, and repairs and tones the skin. This combination of benefits makes the oil effective for cleaning the skin, adding moisture, reducing pore size, and offering a blemish-free appearance.

Other name: Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract.


Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil
Usually listed as simply "Argan Oil" in the ingredient section, this oil is made from the kernels of the Argan tree native to Morocco. The oil is very commonly found in many cosmetics due to its high content of Vitamin E and antioxidants. This makes Argan oil useful for treating oily skin, reducing acne, improving skin elasticity, reducing stretch mark visibility, and conditioning the hair.


Arnica Montana Flower Extract
Also known as Wolf's Bane and Leopard's Bane, this extract is a transparent, dark brown, liquid made from the heads of the flowers. The extract is commonly found in shampoos, conditioners, and skincare products for its ability to reduce dryness and restore a supple appearance to the skin. It also stimulates circulation and reduces inflammation, making it useful in speeding up the healing of bruises, burns, and minor abrasions.


Ascorbic Acid
Sometimes referred to as Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, this acid is commonly found in green vegetables and citrus fruits. This ingredient regulates the production of collagen in our bodies, as well as, serves as an antioxidant to combat free radicals that can age our skin. Its topical application can offer our skin a bright and even tone, while also making skin appear more youthful by reducing the visibility of fine lines and wrinkles.

Other names: Ascorbic Acid 2-Glucoside, Ascorbyl Glucoside.

Aspalathus Linearis Leaf Extract
More commonly known as Rooibos, this plant is only cultivated in a small area of South Africa. The extract from this plant is rich in phenolic acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids. These components give the extract anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties, making it useful for treating signs of aging such as wrinkles, fine lines, and hyperpigmentation, as well as, reducing puffiness and redness of the skin.

B

Bambusa Arundinacea Stem Extract
This extract is made from the shaft of the Bamboo plant. Bamboo extract is known to contain several compounds that are beneficial to the skin such as flavones, phenolic acids, amino acids, and glycosides. The combination of these compounds gives Bamboo extract astringent, antioxidant, and skin soothing properties, as well as, the ability to correct uneven skin tones.


Bentonite
Bentonite is an odorless gray-colored clay made from aged volcanic ash. The clay is known to possess a high concentration of beneficial minerals like calcium, sodium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and silica. In addition to its mineral content, the clay is known for its ability to draw toxins, chemicals, and heavy metals from the skin. This makes it a common ingredient in many detoxification and cleansing products such as masks, poultices, and soaps.


Betula Platyphylla Japonica Bark Extract
More commonly known as the Japanese White Birch, this plant's use in traditional medicine dates as far back as 15,000 years. The extract is made through refinement of the tree’s bark. Some of the extract’s chemical components increase our bodies’ natural production of collagen, as well as, increase circulation. This makes it very effective as a topical treatment for brightening, healing, soothing, and increasing the overall youthful appearance of our skin.


BHT
Short for butylated hydroxytoluene, this chemical is a strong synthetic antioxidant and preservative. It is most often used in products like eyeliners, lipsticks, moisturizers, and foundations as a means of keeping them from deteriorating. Although this product can be toxic if taken orally, it has been deemed safe in small concentrations for topical use in cosmetics.


Biotin
Biotin is a water soluble B-vitamin, also known as Vitamin B-7, that is critical for healthy hair, skin, and nails. Deficiencies in this vitamin can cause brittle hair and nails, as well as, a red and scaly rash on the skin. It is a common ingredient in shampoos and conditioners to improve the health and appearance of hair. Its benefits as a moisturizer make it a typical addition to many lotions as well.


Bisabolol
An alcohol that is commonly derived from the extracts of the chamomile flower. This chemical has been used for hundreds of years as a skin conditioner. When applied topically, Bisabolol is known to have a restorative effect on the skin, reducing dryness and restoring a supple appearance. The compound is also known for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.


Borage Officinalis (Borage) Oil (Omega-3 and Omega-6)
This golden/yellow oil is derived from the seeds of the Borage plant. This oil is particularly high in a fatty acid called gamma linolenic acid (GLA) which is known for its anti-inflammatory and moisturizing properties. The oil's ability to reduce inflammation, as well as, moisturize the skin, makes it effective for the topical treatment of both everyday dryness and skin disorders such as eczema and dermatitis.


Butylene Glycol
Known for its ability to retain moisture, this compound is commonly mixed into cosmetics to reduce their viscosity, as well as, to prevent them from drying out. This makes cosmetics easier to spread and helps to maintain their texture. This makes it a common addition to foundations, lip sticks, and shampoos. The moisture retaining properties of Butylene Glycol also make it effective as a skin conditioner, helping the skin to lock in its natural moisture.


Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter)
Shea butter is derived from the African Shea Tree's seeds. Due to its high content of fatty acids, it's very effective at hydrating the skin, as well as, maintaining the elasticity of our skin. Regular topical applications of shea butter can help to reduce the appearance of dry skin, fine lines, wrinkles, and stretch marks.

C

C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate
Made from benzoic acid, this compound is primarily used to thicken and preserve the consistency of many cosmetics. It is commonly found in sun screens, body washes, deodorants, and foundations. In addition to improving and retaining the desired consistency, it also works to condition the skin due to its emollient effect. This leaves the skin feeling softened and moisturized after application.


Calamine
Most commonly known as an anti-itch product, this pink liquid is made from a mixture of zinc oxide and iron oxide. When applied topically, this liquid is effective in treating not only the itching and irritation caused by minor skin irritations, but also in the treatment of acne, dark spots, and skin redness.


Camphor
Originally produced through the distillation of the bark and wood of the camphor tree, modern day camphor is produced through the chemical manufacturing of turpentine oil. When applied topically, camphor is known to increase blood flow in an area which can reduce pain and swelling. It is also effective in treating itching, fungal infections, hemorrhoids, cold sores, and warts.


Caprylhydroxamic Acid
Commonly referred to as simply "CHA", caprylhydroxamic acid is an amino acid derived from coconut oil. This amino acid is commonly added to cosmetics to serve as a preservative. Due to its antifungal properties, CHA is very efficient at preventing mold from developing in water-based cosmetics. It has gained more popularity recently as it is a non-toxic alternative to the parabens that have been used in the past.


Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
Caprylic is a colorless and odorless oil derived from coconut oil and glycerin. It has several functions in cosmetics including working as a solvent in formulations, helping the product to spread more evenly, and as a skin conditioner. This trifecta of benefits allows caprylic to not only moisturize the skin, but to also ensure that all of the ingredients in a product are dispersed evenly and easily across the skin.

Other name: Caprylyl Glycol.


Carbomer
A carbomer is a series of chemical polymers made from acrylic acid. These white powders are used in cosmetics to add viscosity and to keep the liquid and oil-based components from separating. They can also be used to suspend insoluble ingredients in a liquid.


Carica (Papaya) Fruit Extract
This extract is made from the refinement of the papaya fruit. With a high content of vitamins A, B, and C, caretenoids, and antioxidants, this extract is extremely beneficial to the skin. Topical applications of this extract are useful for removing free radicals that age the skin, giving skin a tight and rejuvenated look, and brightening the skin for an even complexion. The extract also contains anti-inflammatory compounds that can reduce redness and swelling of the skin.


Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Oil
This fatty acid-rich oil is derived from the seeds of the safflower. The most common among these fatty acids is linoleic acid, which benefits the skin in many ways due to its high Vitamin E content and its ability to increase new cell production. Topical use of safflower oil can result in reduced acne, younger looking skin, increased hair growth, and a healthier scalp.


Cellulose
Cellulose is the substance that makes up most of a plant's cell walls. It's primarily used to thicken and prevent the separation of cosmetics. This is critical for ensuring that products are always applied smoothly and evenly. Aside from working as an additive, cellulose is also known for its ability to retain moisture, reducing dryness and restoring suppleness to the skin.


Centella Asiatica Extract
Native to Asia, this perennial plant is rich in antioxidants and amino acids. It is known for its ability to increase the body's natural production of collagen, restoring elasticity and a more youthful appearance to the skin. Topical applications of it have also proven effective in treating eczema, psoriasis, cellulite, and burns.


Ceramide
These lipid molecules exist naturally in the membranes of all of our skin cells. They assist in giving our cells structure, helping our cells communicate, and in storing energy for our cells. These ceramides form a protective layer on our skin's surface that prevents the loss of moisture and keeps pollutants out. This makes them effective in preventing skin wrinkles, irritation, redness, and dryness.


Ceratonia Siliqua Gum
Commonly referred to as carob seed gum, this gum is extracted from the carob tree seeds which can be found in several Mediterranean countries. The gum is primarily used as an emulsifier and stabilizer in many cosmetics due to its ability to improve the strength and texture of gels and other cosmetic products.


Cetyl Ethylhexanoate
This synthetic ester typically comes in the form of a yellow oily liquid. Its oily nature makes it a useful thickening agent in many cosmetics, as well as, makes the product spread on the skin more easily. Topical applications of it can reduce skin redness, add moisture, and soften the skin.


Chlorphenesin
A white crystalline powder that is often used as an antifungal agent and preservative. Chlorphenesin's antibacterial and antifungal properties make it useful for preventing changes in the color, scent, viscosity, and pH of cosmetic products to improve their shelf life. Chlorphenesin's antifungal properties also make it useful for the topical treatment of nail fungi.


Cholesterol
Present in all animal cells and bodily fluids, cholesterol is a fat that is necessary for the maintenance of our skin’s protective outer layer. As we age, the levels of cholesterol in our skin decrease. This reduced cholesterol content can cause skin to become dry, wrinkled, and vulnerable to irritants. Topical applications of cholesterol can help to ensure that our skin stays supple, moisturized, and healthy.


CI 15985
Also known as Pigment Yellow 104, Sunset Yellow FCF, and Yellow 6, CI 15985 is a cosmetic dye derived from petroleum. This dye is used alter the color of cosmetics such as lipsticks, eyeshadows, and nail polishes.


CI 16255
Also known as Brilliant Scarlet, New Coccine, and Cochineal Red A, CI 16255 is a cosmetic dye derived from petroleum. This dye is used to alter the color of cosmetics such as lipsticks, eyeshadows, and nail polishes.


Citric Acid
A hydroxy acid that is naturally present in the juice of lemons and other citrus sour fruits. It can also be produced commercially through the fermentation of sugar. When applied topically, citric acid can be effective in the treatment of acne, rosacea, dark spots, psoriasis, and skin damage caused by UV radiation.


Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Fruit Extract
A pale yellow oil made from the sweet orange fruit with a high content of alpha hydroxy acids (AHA). The high AHA content makes this extract effective in revitalizing the skin by removing dead skin cells and assisting in the production of new cells. These acids are also effective for treating the damage caused by UV radiation, moisturizing the skin, and reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.


Citrus Limon (Lemon) Fruit Extract
Made from the lemon fruit, this extract is high in antioxidants, Vitamin C, and citric acid. These compounds assist in the body's natural production of collagen, which increases skin elasticity. The extract's topical uses also include removing dead skin cells, treating dark spots, protecting the skin from UV radiation, and preventing the formation of wrinkles.


Cocamidopropyl Betaine
A pale yellow substance made from coconut oil that works as a cleanser and an emulsifier. In personal care products, it works similarly to a detergent. It is often used in shampoos and other cleansing products to thicken the mixture and to help remove dirt and oil from the hair and skin. It also has mild antibacterial properties that boost its contribution to cleansers.


Cyclopentasiloxane
A synthetic silicone that is used as a conditioner, lubricant, and solvent in numerous cosmetics. Silicones have a unique chemical structure that makes them spread very easily, as well as, leave the skin and hair with a silky appearance, making them a common addition to cosmetic formulations. This silicone can be used to protect the skin, increase hair shine, and to reduce the visibility of fine lines.

D

Dead Sea Mud (Sea Silt)
Mud harvested from the Dead Sea that is especially high in the minerals sodium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and calcium. This mud is known for its ability to increase circulation, detoxify the body, and improve overall skin health. Topical applications of this mud have been proven to increase skin hydration, repair damaged skin, reduce skin roughness and redness, and to reduce inflammation.


Decapeptide-12
A peptide can be defined as short chains of amino acids. A decapeptide is a peptide that is made of 10 amino acids. Decapeptide-12 is a specific series of 10 different amino acids. This decapeptide in particular is used to block the production of melanin in our skin. This makes topical applications of this peptide useful for brightening the skin to treat dark spots and other forms of hyperpigmentation.


Dimethicone
This silicone-based polymer is one of the most commonly used ingredients in the world of cosmetics. Like other silicones, dimethicone spreads very easily, helping cosmetic products to disperse more easily and evenly onto the skin. When applied topically, it protects and hydrates the skin, as well as, leaves it with a smooth look and feel. This silicone also fills in the nooks and crannies of the skin, reducing the visibility of fine lines.

Other name: Dimethicone Crosspolymer.


Dimethyl Isosorbide
Derived from plants or synthetically manufactured, this clear and oily liquid is typically used as a carrier liquid for other ingredients. Its greatest benefit is its ability to penetrate deeply into the skin. When other compounds have been dissolved in this liquid, it carries them with it as it penetrates deeply into the skin. This allows the other healing ingredients to get closer to the source of a skin disorder, more effectively treating it.


Dimethyl MEA
Also known as DMAE, this compound is derived from the B vitamin choline. Choline is known to play a role in the production of new skin cells. Topical applications of DMAE are known to have a firming effect on the skin. This makes it an effective treatment for reducing the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines, improving lip fullness and shape, and tightening sagging skin on the face or neck.


Diospyros Kaki Leaf Extract
This extract is derived from the leaves of the Diospyros Kaki, more commonly known as the Japanese Persimmon. This plant has been used medicinally for centuries, having its roots in Chinese traditional medicine. Topical applications of the extract can reduce pore size, prevent wrinkles, brighten the skin, reduce oiliness, reduce inflammation, and protect the skin from sun damage.


Dipotassium Glycyrrhizinate
Also known as licorice root extract, this salt is derived from the licorice plant. Its benefits to the skin classify it primarily as a skin conditioner. It is known to restore moisture and suppleness to dry and damaged skin. In addition to moisturizing, the extract also has anti-inflammatory, skin soothing, and anti-irritating properties, making it very effective in the treatment of numerous skin disorders.


Dipropylene Glycol
This synthetic solvent can be found in many different cosmetics, but not for its ability to improve our skin's health or appearance. It is added to products to improve them in other ways. Often found in sunscreens, deodorants, foundations, and hair products, this solvent is used to alter the scent and/or the thickness of these cosmetics.


Disiloxane
Like other silicones, Disiloxane is usually used as a skin conditioner and to make products spread more easily and evenly onto the skin . Silicones form a thin protective layer over the skin that leaves it with a shining and healthy look, as well as, reduces the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines.


Disodium EDTA
This salt is derived from edetic acid. Its primary purpose is to preserve and stabilize cosmetic products, making it a very commonly used ingredient. It does, however, offer an additional benefit by binding to and removing heavy metals from the skin. This makes it a great addition to skin cleansing products like face washes, body washes, and shampoos; particularly if your home has "hard" water with high mineral content.


D-Panthenol
This provitamin is derived from vitamin B5. Topical applications of this vitamin have been shown to be effective for improving skin hydration, reducing inflammation, accelerating wound healing, and reducing itching. It is also very commonly added to shampoos and conditioners due to its ability to lock in moisture, reduce hair tangles, and add shine to the hair’s appearance.

Other name: Panthenol.


Dromiceius (Emu) Oil
This antioxidant and fatty acid-packed oil is made through the refinement of fat from the emu. When applied topically, it is known to have moisturizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects on the skin. It is commonly used to treat numerous skin disorders including rosacea, acne, psoriasis, and eczema. The oil is also said to accelerate wound healing and to reduce the visibility of wrinkles and fine lines.

E

Epilobium Angustifolium Leaf Extract
Commonly known as willowherb or fireweed, the extract from this plant is known for its anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and soothing properties, as well as, a high content of antioxidants. Topical applications of this extract are effective in treating eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, and acne. The plant can also offer soothing relief from skin irritations like burns and rashes and can reduce the aging effects of free radicals on the skin.


Ethoxydiglycol
This clear and colorless liquid is used as a solvent and a carrier in a wide range of cosmetics. Its primary purpose is to dissolve the other components of the product and reduce the overall thickness of the solution. Although it doesn’t offer any benefits to the skin itself, it can increase the absorption and effectiveness of other ingredients.


Eucalyptus Globulus (Eucalyptus) Leaf Oil
This colorless and strongly scented oil is obtained by steam distilling the dried leaves of the eucalyptus tree. Due to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic, and antifungal properties, this oil has quite a few topical uses. It can be used to clean minor wounds, treat skin infections, reduce the irritation from insect bites, relieve muscle pain/soreness, reduce swelling, and treat acne.


Eyeliss
This patented compound is actually a combination of three different peptides that work together. This combination works to increase the activity of our lymphatic system, decongest the nasal cavity, firm the skin, reduce facial swelling, and to strengthen the capillaries in our skin. Topical applications of this compound are meant to reduce the presence of bags under the eyes.

F

Ferulic Acid
This plant-based antioxidant can be obtained from several sources including the seeds of fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Topically applied antioxidants are effective in removing free radicals from the skin. If left untouched, these free radicals can contribute to premature skin aging in the forms of wrinkles and fine lines, as well as, the development of some cancers.


Fomes Officinalis (Mushroom) Extract
This plant-derived extract is made from a tree growing fungus. Best known for its astringent properties, topical applications of this extract are said to improve the overall appearance and radiance of the skin. Regular use has been shown to balance skin oils, tighten and firm the skin, help to hydrate the skin, and to minimize the visibility of pores.


Frankincense Serrata Oil
This yellow and strongly scented oil is sourced from the Frankincense Serrata plant. It is known for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, antioxidant, and antifungal properties, making it very effective in the treatment of many skin ailments. The oil can be used to treat topical conditions like minor wounds, acne, and rashes. It is also known to improve the overall appearance of the skin by rejuvenating dry skin, preventing wrinkles, tightening the skin, and reducing pore size.

G

Glucosamine
Made up of proteins and sugars, this compound serves many different functions throughout the body. One of these functions is to help in the production of a chemical called hyaluronic acid. This makes topical applications of the compound useful for improving wound healing, adding hydration to the skin, and decreasing the appearance of wrinkles. Glucosamine also reduces the amount of melanin that our body produces, making it useful for treating dark spots.


Glycerin
Sometimes referred to as glycerol, this colorless, odorless, and thick liquid is a byproduct in the manufacturing of soap. Topical applications of glycerin are known to benefit the skin is several ways. These benefits include fighting acne, treating skin infections, moisturizing the skin, reducing wrinkles and fine lines, treating psoriasis and dermatitis, and leaving the skin with a soft and supple appearance.


Glyceryl Stearate/PEG 100 Stearate
This compound is typically made by combining natural oils like palm oil or coconut oil with stearic acid. It is usually added to cosmetics because of its ability to thicken the product, as well as, offer moisturizing properties to the skin. It also helps to clean the skin and hair by mixing with dirt and oils so that they can be rinsed away with water.


Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract
Sometimes referred to as licorice root oil, this natural derivative of licorice was widely used in traditional medicine. Known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and skin lightening properties, licorice extract can be effective in the treatment of many skin conditions. Topical applications of this oil have been proven effective in treating eczema, dermatitis, acne, and dark spots. The extract also has a moisturizing effect on the skin, increasing its suppleness and overall appearance.


Grapeseed Extract
As the name implies, this extract is derived from grape seeds. The extract is known for its antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing properties. The powerful antioxidants in this extract make it effective at removing free radicals from the skin that can cause wrinkles, fine lines, and skin discoloration. The antibacterial and wound healing properties, on the other hand, allow the extract to speed up the healing of minor wounds and to prevent infection.

H

Haloxyl
This patented ingredient is made from a mixture of the Chrysin flower, several amino acids, and a few other proprietary components. It is used as an anti-aging cream, particularly for reducing dark circles under the eyes. Through a combination of increasing collagen production and blood circulation in the area, Haloxyl works to firm the skin, reduce inflammation, and lighten the skin.


Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Extract
Made from the bark of the Witch Hazel shrub, this extract is a well-known astringent, but also possesses anti-bacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Topical applications of this extract are effective in treating acne, eczema, minor wounds, and other mild skin irritations. It is also helpful in reducing pore size, removing free radicals that can prematurely age the skin, and cleansing the skin of dirt and bacteria.


HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer
This synthetic polymer is commonly found in many leave on cosmetic products. The ingredient itself doesn’t offer any benefits to the skin, but it does improve the overall quality of the product that it is added to. These polymers are added to thicken liquid cosmetics, prevent powdered cosmetics from clumping together, and to form a film over the skin that both protects it and improves its appearance.


Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil
This oil is made by compressing the seeds of sunflowers. Due to the oil's high content of fatty acids and vitamin E, it is added to many cosmetics as a skin conditioner and antioxidant. Topical applications of the oil can benefit the skin by strengthening its outermost layer, reducing its loss of moisture, and removing free radicals that can cause premature aging of the skin.


Honey Extract
This bee-derived compound is made up of sugars, proteins, vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. This combination of components makes it very effective at moisturizing and soothing the skin. When applied topically, the extract can be used to treat skin irritations such as minor wounds, burns, psoriasis, hemorrhoids, dry skin, and diaper rash. Honey can also be used to moisturize the hair and skin, as well as, prevent the formation of wrinkles.


Hydrogenated Polydecene
This synthetic polymer is added to cosmetics to improve the hydration, feel, and appearance of skin, as well as, to make the product spread onto the skin more easily. In addition to ensuring that products are spread evenly upon the skin, topical applications of this ingredient give skin a soft and silky feel, reduce the appearance of wrinkles, and prevent the skin from losing moisture.


Hydrolyzed Collagen
Collagen is the most plentiful protein in our body and is responsible for maintaining the structure of our cells. This makes it important not only to keep our cells healthy, but to also ensure that they maintain their shape. Factors like age, UV radiation, and free radicals can disrupt our body's natural production of collagen, making it less plentiful in our skin. Topical applications can replenish it, keeping our skin healthy and wrinkle-free.


Hydroxyacetophenone
This substance, known as a metabolite, is produced naturally by animals, plants, and fungi. Topical applications of this ingredient have antioxidant and soothing properties on the skin, making it effective for treating minor skin irritations, as well as, removing free radicals that can age our skin. Hydroxyacetophenone is also known to improve the effectiveness of many different preservatives, increasing the shelf life of cosmetic products.


Hydroxyethylcellulose
This naturally occurring substance is derived from sugars found in the cells of plants. It doesn't carry any personal benefit to the skin; however, it is commonly added to cosmetics to improve them in other ways. It is often used to thicken and prevent the separation of cosmetic products, as well as, to allow them to form a protective film on the skin that traps moisture in and keeps irritants out.


Hydroxypinacolone Retinoate
This synthetic substance is made through the refinement of a form of Vitamin A known as retinol. Topical applications of this ingredient are known to have skin restoring properties. Regular use of this ingredient can increase collagen production in the skin to increase the skin's overall thickness and density. This can help combat wrinkling, sagging, and skin irritations that stem from unhealthy skin such as acne, rosacea, and dryness.

I

Illicium Verum (Anise) Fruit Extract
Commonly referred to as Anise extract, or simply Anise, this oil is made from the seeds of the Anise herb. The extract is known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Topical applications of this extract can be useful for the treatment of skin conditions like acne and eczema, as well as, removing free radicals from the skin that can prematurely age it.


Iron Powder
As the name implies, this ingredient is a powdered version of the mineral iron. There are several different forms of this powder, but the primary purpose of all of them is to impart color into cosmetics. The various colors, non-toxic nature, and resistance to smearing make them ideal coloring ingredients in many eye shadows, lipsticks, and blushes.


Isopropyl Alcohol
More commonly known as rubbing alcohol, this ingredient is well known for its antiseptic, antibacterial, and degreasing abilities. Topical applications of isopropyl alcohol cleanse the skin by removing oils and bacteria from the surface and deep within the pores. This makes it an efficient treatment for acne, especially for those with very oily complexions.


Isopropyl Myristate
This synthetic oil is made by combining isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) and a natural fatty acid called myristic acid. This ingredient may be added to cosmetics for several different purposes. These include acting as a thickener and/or a lubricant, reducing the greasy feeling that other oily ingredients may leave on the skin, helping other ingredients penetrate more deeply into the skin, and/or softening the skin.

J

Jojoba Oil
This oil is sourced from the seeds of the Jojoba shrub, native to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It's known for its ability to reduce inflammation, moisturize the skin, and penetrate deeply into the skin. Topical applications of this oil are useful for treating acne, seborrhea, and eczema. It has also been shown to reduce skin aging, improve wound healing, and allow other medicinal ingredients to penetrate more deeply into the skin.

Other name: Simmondsia Chinesis (Jojoba) Seed Oil.

K

Kaolin
Also known as china clay, this soft white clay has a variety of uses both inside and outside of the world of cosmetics. The clay is used topically as an exfoliant and has the ability to bind to and remove oils, toxins, and bacteria from the skin. Removal of these contaminants leaves the skin cleansed and refreshed. This is particularly useful for treating existing skin blemishes, as well as, preventing future ones from forming.

L

Laureth-7
This synthetic compound is created by chemically modifying a natural fatty acid called Lauric Acid. It is a common addition to many personal care products such as shampoos, body washes, deodorants and conditioners. Its main purpose is to act as a mild cleanser, removing dirt and oils from the skin and hair. It also functions as an emulsifier, ensuring that the ingredients in a product don’t separate.


Lavandula Officinalis (Lavender) Oil
This oil is derived from the lavender plant through steam distillation. This oil is commonly used in cosmetics as a fragrance additive, and used on its own in aroma therapy to relieve stress. Topical applications to the skin have been shown to improve the speed of wound healing, making it a good treatment option for minor cuts, scrapes, burns, and other abrasions.


Lecithin
This natural fatty substance can be derived from egg yolks, as well as, several plant-based sources such as soybeans, wheat germ, legumes, and peanuts. This compound is used in cosmetics for its several abilities including thickening products, preventing products from separating, hydrating and softening the skin, and carrying other beneficial ingredients deeper into the skin. Topical applications of this ingredient can help to moisturize skin, restore damaged skin, and improve skin texture.


Leontopodium Alpinum Cell Culture Extract (Edelweiss)
The Edelweiss flower is native to mountainous areas in Europe and Asia, but is rare and protected. Since the plant itself is protected, cell cultures are used in cosmetics to offer the plant's benefits without removing them from nature. The plant possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. This makes topical applications of the extract useful for treating eczema, acne, skin redness, wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin.

M

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
This compound is derived from vitamin C and, unsurprisingly, has many of the same effects on the skin. This ingredient has been shown to increase the body's natural production of collagen, reduce the production of melanin, lock moisture into the skin, and remove free radicals from the skin. These proven benefits make topical applications of this ingredient effective for lightening dark spots, increasing skin elasticity, reducing wrinkles and fine lines, and maintaining skin moisture levels.


Malpighia Glabra (Acerola) Fruit Extract
This extract is made from the Acerola fruit which has a high content of several important nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin. Topical applications of this extract can help to increase collagen production in the skin. This increases skin elasticity, reduces wrinkles and fine lines, and firms the skin, offering an overall younger and healthier look. The extract also moisturizes the skin and brightens darks spots.


Malus Domestica Fruit Cell Culture Extract
More commonly known as apples, the extract from Malus Domestica cell cultures are simply made from apple cells grown in a lab, rather than from the fruit itself. The health benefits of apples are due, in large part, to their high levels of antioxidants. This antioxidant content makes topical applications of the extract useful for treating skin aging such as wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin.


Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Oil
Derived from the leaves of the tea tree, this commonly used oil can be found in many different cosmetic products. The oil is known for its antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. Topical applications of the oil can be used to treat many skin conditions such as acne, dry skin, eczema, oily skin, swelling, redness, minor wounds, and psoriasis.

Other name: Tee Tree Exract.


Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil
This oil is derived from the peppermint herb, which has been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Peppermint is known to possess antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Topical applications of this oil can be effective for relieving itching and pain, fighting acne, toning the skin, and removing free radicals that can cause premature aging of the skin.


Methyl Perfluorobutyl Ether
This compound is added to cosmetic products to function as a solvent. Although this ingredient doesn’t offer any benefits to the skin, it is often added to cosmetic products to improve them in other ways. The ingredient is added to products that have high oil content. Its addition makes many cosmetics that may be otherwise too thick into thinner and more fluid products.

Other name: Methyl Perfluoroisobutyl Ether.


Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)
Despite the complicated name, this ingredient is made up primarily of sulfur, as well as, a few other naturally-occurring elements in our bodies like oxygen and carbon. This ingredient is known to reduce inflammation, increase collagen levels, help the body absorb nutrients, and increase the effects of antioxidants. Topical applications of it can prevent wrinkles, treat acne, soothe itching, reduce redness, and improve the healing of wounds and scars.


Mineral Oil
This odorless and colorless oil is made from petroleum as a byproduct of gasoline production. It can commonly be found in many moisturizers and other skin care products due to its moisture retaining properties. Topical applications of the oil have been shown to increase skin softness, lock moisture into the skin, and prevent contaminants from penetrating into the skin by forming a protective layer on the skin's surface.


Myristoyl Hexapeptide-4
This synthetic compound is a protein that contains amino acids necessary for maintaining healthy skin. Topical applications of this ingredient have been shown to stimulate the body's production of collagen, a key component of skin cell health and structure. This makes this compound useful for restoring skin elasticity, reducing wrinkles and fine lines, firming the skin, and improving skin tone.

N

Neopentyl Glycol Dicaprylate/Dicaprate
This ingredient is a combination of neopentyl glycol and a naturally-occurring fatty acid called heptanoic acid. This compound is added to cosmetics to increase their thickness and to make them spread on the skin more easily. It does, however, also offer its own benefits to the skin. Topical applications of products with this ingredient have been shown to soften and moisturize the skin, improving both its appearance and feel.


Niacinamide
This ingredient is more commonly known as vitamin B3, but also goes by the names niacin and nicotinic acid. It has been shown to be non-irritating, as well as, beneficial to both the health and appearance of the skin. Topical applications of this vitamin can reduce wrinkles and fine lines, brighten dark spots, reduce redness/blotchiness, reduce acne, and improve skin elasticity.


Nicotinoyl Tripeptide-1
This compound is made by combining the vitamin Niacin with a protein called Tripeptide-1. It has been shown to have a lightening effect on the skin. This skin lightening property works by reducing a pigment in the skin called melanin. Topical applications of skin lightening products can be useful in the treatment of skin discolorations such as freckles, acne scars, and age spots.


Nonapeptide-1
This ingredient is a synthetically-produced protein. It is known to interrupt the body's production of melanin, a pigment that causes darkening of the skin. By preventing melanin from being produced, this ingredient can be effective for treating several forms of unwanted dark spots. These include freckles, acne scars, and age spots.

O

Oenothera Biennis (Evening Primrose) Oil
This linoleic acid-rich oil is made from the seeds of the evening primrose plant. Linoleic acid has been shown to be important for maintaining healthy skin. Topical applications of the oil have been proven to be effective in treating skin conditions such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema, as well as, keeping skin well hydrated.


Oligopeptide-1
This synthetically-produced protein mimics a skin growth molecule in our body. By mimicking this molecule, the rate that our body produces proteins necessary for healthy skin increases. Two of these proteins are collagen and elastin, which are necessary for maintaining healthy and younger-looking skin. Topical applications of this ingredient can reduce wrinkles and fine lines, slow down the thinning of aging skin, and increase the speed of wound healing.


Olive Leaf Extract
This extract is made from the leaves of the olive tree which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Rich in polyphenols, this extract has been shown to have skin regenerating, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Topical applications of this extract can help prevent skin cancer, reduce the formation of wrinkles and fine lines, firm the skin, and speed up wound healing.

P

Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-12
This compound is used in cosmetics as an anti-aging treatment. It works by improving the body's natural production of proteins necessary for healthy skin such as collagen and elastin. In addition to creating more of these proteins, it also slows down the loss of our existing proteins. This makes topical applications of this compound useful for giving skin a more youthful appearance by reducing wrinkles, reducing fine lines, and firming the skin.


Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-14
Nearly identical chemical structure and purpose as Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-12 (see previous entry).


Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7
This synthetic peptide interferes with production of inflammatory molecules in the body that can damage the skin. By avoiding this inflammation, we avoid damaging the collagen, elastin, and other proteins in our body that keep our skin healthy. Topical applications of this compound can contribute to the prevention of wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin.


PEG/PPG-18/18 Dimethicone
This silicone is added to many foundations to make products spread evenly and leave the skin with a smooth and flawless appearance. Topical applications of this ingredient also work to lubricate, protect, and condition the skin. It does this by forming a film over the skin that allows oxygen and other nutrients to pass through, but locks in water. This allows the skin to breathe, while also preventing it from losing vital moisture.


PEG-10 Isostearate
This compound is a combination of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a man-made fatty acid called isostearic acid. This combination is added to cosmetic products to bind various ingredients together, prevent the separation of ingredients, and to thicken the products. Topical applications of this ingredient also lubricate and soften the skin, as well as, help to deliver other beneficial ingredients deeper into the skin, increasing their effectiveness.


PEG-20 Glyceryl Triisostearate
This synthetically produced compound is a very common ingredient in cleansing products like facial scrubs and body washes, as well as, leave on creams and lotions. Topical leave on products use this ingredient for its ability to soften and moisturize the skin. Topical cleansers, on the other hand, use this ingredient for its ability to bind to dirt, oil, and bacteria so that they can be rinsed away with water.


PEG-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
This white paste is made from hydrogenated castor oil and is used to cleanse the skin and hair. When applied topically, this ingredient binds to dirt, oils, and bacteria that are present in the hair and skin. Once they’ve been attached to this ingredient, they can be easily rinsed away with water. For this reason, it is a common addition to shampoos, body washes, and facial scrubs.


Persea Grattisima (Avocado) Oil
This yellow/green oil is sourced from the pulp of the avocado fruit. As a source of proteins, antioxidants, fatty acids, and several important vitamins, this oil can be very beneficial to the skin. Topical applications of the oil have been shown to improve wound healing, moisturize the skin, reduce wrinkles and fine lines, and reduce acne.


Phenoxyethanol
This colorless and pleasant-smelling liquid is most commonly used as a preservative in many cosmetics. It has antibacterial and antiseptic properties that make it effective in keeping cosmetic products from spoiling. Due to its pleasant scent, it is also used occasionally as a fragrance additive in perfumes and other scented cosmetics.


Plankton Extract
This plant-based extract is made from different types of algae and seaweed that are packed with fatty acids, proteins, and vitamins. Topical applications of this extract can be used to reduce the signs of skin aging such as wrinkles or fine lines, lighten the skin, reduce inflammation, firm the skin, treat eczema, and remove bacteria from the skin.


Polyacrylamide C13-14 Isoparaffin
Polyacrylamide is a polymer that can form a gel and is used as a thickener in cosmetic products. C13-14 isoparaffin is a mixture of mineral oils made from petroleum that also acts as a thickener, but also locks moisture into the skin. Topical applications of this compound can be effective for softening, smoothing, and soothing the skin.


Polyethylene
This synthetic resin, or plastic, can be found in a wide array of cosmetics due to its many uses. Although this ingredient doesn’t benefit skin health or appearance, it is added to improve cosmetic products in other ways. Polyethylene used to thicken, stabilize, and prevent the separation of products. It is also abrasive, adhesive, and forms a film on the skin which can make it useful in the production of lipsticks, mascaras, skin cleansers, and many other cosmetics.


Polymethylsilsesquioxane
This silicone can be found in cosmetic products to improve the appearance of the skin. Polymethylsilsesquioxane forms a film over the skin that lubricates the surface and absorbs excess oils. This allows products to spread evenly and leaves the skin with a smooth and flawless appearance. Topical applications of this ingredient can reduce the visibility of wrinkles and blemishes, protect the skin from external irritants, and prevent the loss of moisture from the skin.


Polysilicone-11
Like other silicones, this ingredient is added to cosmetics to improve the appearance and hydration of the skin. The silicone forms an evenly spread film over the skin that can benefit it in several ways. Topical applications of the silicone form a protective barrier over the skin to keep irritants out, reduce the visibility of wrinkles and fine lines, mask blemishes and scars, and reduce the loss of moisture from the skin.


Polysorbate 20
This oily liquid is most often used to help dissolve oil-based ingredients into water-based products. It also thickens and prevents the separation of cosmetic products. Although it is usually used to increase the effectiveness of other products, Polysorbate 20 can also offer its own benefits to the skin. Its ability to mix oils and water also makes it effective for binding to and removing oils and dirt from the skin.


Polysorbate 80
This oily liquid is most often used to help dissolve oil-based ingredients into water-based products. It also thickens and prevents the separation of cosmetic products. Although it is usually used to increase the effectiveness of other products, Polysorbate 80 can also offer its own benefits to the skin. Its ability to mix oils and water also makes it effective for binding to and removing oils and dirt from the skin.


Portulaca Oleracea Extract
This extract is made from a weed-like plant more commonly referred to as a pusley or common purslane. Although considered a pest, this plant is rich in beneficial minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids. Topical applications of this extract have been shown to treat burns, eczema, psoriasis, and itching, as well as, reduce wrinkles, fine lines, and dark spots.


Potassium Hydroxide
Also known as lye, this ingredient is commonly used in the production of liquid soaps and other cleansers. This ingredient is typically used to balance the pH of soaps and other personal care products. Recently, however, topical applications of this ingredient have also been proven to be an effective treatment for plain warts.


Potassium Sorbate
This natural and non-toxic preservative is made from sorbic acid, an acid derived from the berries of the rowan tree. This preservative's ability to prevent the growth of mold and fungus makes its widely used in not only cosmetics, but also in the food industry. The addition of this compound greatly increases the shelf life of cosmetic products.


Propanediol
This colorless or pale yellow liquid is usually made from the fermentation of corn sugars, but can also be made from petroleum. It is commonly added to cosmetics to reduce the thickness of the product, as well as, to serve as a skin moisturizer. Topical applications of this compound have been shown to increase the hydration and appearance of the skin.


Propylene Glycol
This clear and colorless liquid is commonly used as a solvent, preservative, and moisturizer in many cosmetics. It is commonly added to reduce the thickness of cosmetic products, as well as, improve their shelf life. Topical applications of this ingredient have been shown to increase the hydration and appearance of the skin.


Prunus Amygdalus (Sweet Almond) Oil
Made by pressing raw almonds, this oil is rich in beneficial nutrients like vitamin E, zinc, and folic acid. It is used in cosmetics for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, skin restoring, and moisturizing properties. Topical applications of this oil can treat eczema, psoriasis, and dry skin, give skin a smooth and even appearance, protect the skin from free radicals, and reduce scarring.


Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6)
Since vitamin B6 plays a role in the production of red blood cells and certain skin cells, it is very important for the development and maintenance of our skin. Deficiencies of this vitamin have been shown to cause rashes and cracked skin. Topical applications of this vitamin may be effective for the treatment of eczema and psoriasis, as well as, improve wound healing.


Pyrus Malus (Apple) Fruit Extract
This extract is derived from the fruits of the apple tree. The health benefits of apples are due, in large part, to their high levels of antioxidants. This antioxidant content makes topical applications of the extract useful for treating the signs of skin aging such as wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin.

R

Resveratrol
This natural antioxidant can be found in over 70 different plants like blueberries, red grapes, cranberries, and nuts. It is added to cosmetics for its ant-aging and cancer-fighting properties. Topical applications of this compound remove free radicals that cause premature aging of the skin and contribute to the development of skin cancers. This is beneficial for the reduction of wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin, as well as, reducing the risk of skin cancer.


Retinol
Derived from vitamin A, this ingredient has been shown to increase the body's production of collagen, protect the skin from UV radiation, reduce inflammation, and keep the skin hydrated. Topical applications of this compound can reduce wrinkles and fine lines, tighten the skin, protect the skin from free radicals, treat acne, and improve the overall appearance of the skin.


Rhododendron Ferrugineum Leaf Cell Extract
This extract is made from the cells of what is commonly known as the alpine rose. This flower is native to the Swiss Alps and is packed with beneficial antioxidants and proteins. The extract may remove free radicals that causes premature aging, as well as, increase the speed of skin cell regeneration. Topical applications of this extract can reduce wrinkles and fine lines, increase the speed that skin rejuvenates, and improve the skin's natural barrier.


Rhus Semialata Gall Extract
This extract is made from growths that grow on the shrub more commonly known as the Chinese sumac. This extract is known to have antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Topical applications of the extract can remove free radicals that age the skin and improve the skin's production of collagen. These two actions help the skin to maintain a youthful appearance. The extract is also used to treat fungal infections and soothe minor skin irritations.


Rosa Canina Fruit (Rosehip) Oil
This antioxidant-packed oil is made from the fruits of the rose plant and contains essential fatty acids and vitamins A and C. The oil is known to have anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and skin-restoring properties. Topical applications of this oil have been shown to reduce the visibility of scars, treat eczema, increase skin elasticity, reduce wrinkles, firm the skin, and fade dark spots.


Rubus Suavissimus (Raspberry) Leaf Extract
This extract is made from the leaves of raspberry shrubs and has a high content of beneficial fatty acids and vitamins. The extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor preventing properties. Topical applications of this extract can help to remove free radicals from the skin, reduce wrinkles and fine lines, lighten dark spots, and reduce inflammation.

S

Saccharum Officinarum (Sugar Cane) Extract
This extract is derived from sugar cane, which is a good source of a beneficial fatty acid known as glycolic acid. This acid has been proven to increase the body's production of collagen and increase the skin's thickness. Topical applications of this extract can reduce wrinkles, reduce fine lines, and improve skin firmness.


Salicylic Acid
This plant-derived acid is used as a skin peel in cosmetics. The acid works by removing dead skin cells and other irritants from the skin's surface and pores. This process is useful to cleanse, soften, and improve the appearance of skin. Topical applications of this acid are used to treat and prevent acne, as well as, reduce the appearance of dark spots, freckles, and fine lines.


Salix Nigra (Willow) Bark Extract
This extract is made from the bark of the black willow tree and is a natural source of salicylic acid, a commonly used skin peeling chemical. Salicylic acid exfoliates the outermost layer of our skin to remove dead skin cells and other irritants. This shedding effect renews the skin and is effective in treating and reducing the appearance of blemishes. Its topical use can be effective for reducing acne, fine lines, dark spots, and freckles.


Sodium Cocoyl Apple Amino Acids
This ingredient is a mixture of a salt derived from coconuts and amino acids derived from apple seeds. It is known for its cleansing and moisturizing properties, making it a common addition to personal care products like hand soaps, body washes, and shampoos. When applied to the skin, this compound mixes with dirt, oils, and other irritants so that they can be more easily washed off, while also hydrating and softening the skin.


Sodium Hyaluronate
This compound is the salt form of a fatty acid called hyaluronic acid. This naturally-occurring acid can be found in high amounts in our skin and plays a very important role in our skin's ability to stay moisturized. Topical applications of this ingredient help our skin to lock in vital moisture. This keeps our skin hydrated, healthy, firm, and wrinkle-free.


Sodium Lauroyl Glutamate
This natural mixture of salt, amino acids, and fatty acids is derived from the oils of coconuts and palm fruit. This ingredient is added to cosmetics to cleanse the skin. When applied topically, it binds to oils, dirt, and bacteria on the surface of the skin, making these skin irritants easier to wash away with water.


Sodium Polyacrylate
This powdery synthetic compound is usually added to cosmetic products like shampoos, lotions, or conditioners to thicken them by absorbing excess water. Although its main purpose is to absorb water in cosmetics, it can also help the skin to absorb more water. When applied topically, this ingredient can have a moisturizing effect on the skin and increase its smoothness.


Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) Callus Culture Extract
This synthetic extract is produced in a lab from tomato stem cells. It has been shown to remove free radicals and heavy metals from the skin, both of which can cause the skin to age prematurely. It has also been shown to increase the skin's production of collagen. When applied topically, this extract can detoxify the skin of heavy metals, restore skin firmness, reduce wrinkles and fine lines, and prevent premature skin aging.


Sorbitol
This sugar alcohol can be derived from several natural sources like seaweed, corn, and fruit. This ingredient is added to cosmetics for its moisturizing properties. Sorbitol attracts new moisture to the skin and seals the moisture in to prevent the skin from drying out. When applied topically, sorbitol has been shown to increase the skin's ability to repair its natural barrier and to improve skin hydration.


Sulfur
This naturally-occurring mineral is known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and exfoliating properties. This combination of properties makes it particularly effective for treating acne, but it has several uses in cosmetics. Topical applications of this ingredient can be used to treat acne, fungal infections, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, and eczema.

T

Talc
This clay mineral is naturally occurring and commonly added to powdered cosmetics like blush, foundations, and baby powders. Talc is added to products like foundation and eyeshadow to absorb oil from the skin and give the powdery consistency desired in these products. When used as a baby powder or other forms of talcum powder, it keeps moisture-prone areas (like between the thighs) dry and reduces friction that can cause rashes and irritations.


Titanium Dioxide
This naturally-occurring mineral is most commonly found in sunscreens, but is also found in certain whitening and facial creams. Its uses include protecting the skin from UV radiation, thickening cosmetic products, whitening teeth, and brightening the skin. Topical applications of this ingredient can prevent skin aging caused by sun exposure, lighten dark spots, and decrease the risk of developing skin cancer.


Tocopherol
This form of vitamin E is derived from vegetable oils, leafy vegetables, grains, and nuts. Known for its high antioxidant content, this vitamin offers anti-aging and moisturizing benefits to the skin. Topical applications of it have been proven to have a wide range of uses including: protection from UV radiation, reducing wrinkles and fine lines, treating psoriasis, reducing acne, healing wounds, reducing scars, treating eczema, and reducing the appearance of dark circles under the eyes.


Tocopheryl Acetate
This form of vitamin E can be derived from vegetable oils, leafy vegetables, grains, and nuts. It is known for its high antioxidant content and moisturizing effect on the skin. Topical applications of this ingredient can be used for protection from UV radiation, reducing wrinkles and fine lines, treating psoriasis, reducing acne, healing wounds, reducing scars, treating eczema, and reducing the appearance of dark circles under the eyes.


Tourmaline
This semi-precious mineral is the most colorful gemstone on the planet, existing in nearly every color. This mineral is added to moisturizing, anti-aging, and exfoliating products to improve their benefits to the skin. Tourmaline is suspected to help other ingredients in cosmetics penetrate more deeply into the skin, potentially increasing their effectiveness.


Trehalose
This natural sugar can be found in some animals, plants, and fungi, where it prevents their cells from drying out and becoming damaged in harsh conditions. When applied to the skin, it can help our skin cells to bind and retain moisture. This maintenance of skin hydration is important to avoid our skin becoming damaged. Topical applications of this sugar have been shown to improve skin's overall hydration, suppleness, and appearance.


Trideceth-10
This ingredient is commonly added to cleansing products like soaps, body washes, and shampoos to thicken their texture, and improve their cleaning abilities. Trideceth-10 is what is known as a "surfactant" which is a chemical that binds to oils, dirt, and bacteria to make them rinse off more easily. Topical applications of this ingredient are useful for cleansing the skin of potential irritants.


Triethanolamine
Also referred to as trolamine or TEA, this man-made compound is commonly added to cosmetic products to adjust their pH level and/or to function as a skin cleanser. When applied to the skin, TEA mixes with dirt, oils, and bacteria on the skin's surface to make them easier to wash away.

V

Vaccinium Myrtillus Fruit/Leaf Extract
This anti-aging extract is made from the fruit more commonly known as the bilberry or huckleberry. It is known for its very high content of antioxidants, as well as, its anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant content of this extract makes it effective for removing free radicals from the skin that can cause premature aging and the development of some cancers. Topical applications can reduce wrinkles and fine lines, protect the skin from UV damage, relieve itchy skin, and maintain skin firmness.


Viscum Album (Mistletoe) Leaf Extract
Made from the leaves of the mistletoe plant, this extract has been shown to have a high content of antioxidant compounds. These antioxidants can help to remove free radicals from the skin that can prematurely age it and potentially lead to the development of certain cancers. Topical applications of this extract can firm the skin, protect it from UV radiation, and reduce wrinkles and fine lines.


Vitamin B5
Also known as pantothenic acid, this water soluble vitamin can help to reinforce the skin's natural protective barrier. It has been shown to have soothing, moisturizing, and rejuvenating effects on the skin. Topical applications of this vitamin can treat acne, dry skin, and minor skin irritations. It was also shown to soften the skin, improve its elasticity, help it to retain moisture, and speed up wound healing.


Vitamin E
This fat soluble vitamin can be found in foods like vegetable oil, nuts, grains, meats, and eggs. It is known for its antioxidant and moisturizing properties. Its antioxidant content makes it effective in removing free radicals from the skin that can prematurely age it. Topical applications of vitamin E can reduce wrinkles and fine lines, protect the skin from UV radiation, treat acne, reduce dark spots, and firm the skin.


Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Callus Culture Extract
This extract is made from grape stem cells that are artificially grown in a lab. The extract contains antioxidants that remove free radicals from the skin. This makes this extract very effective in slowing down and preventing skin aging. Topical applications of this extract can reduce wrinkles and fine lines, improve the skin's overall health and appearance, and reduce the risk of skin cancers.


Volcanic Ash
In areas with active volcanoes, natives have used volcanic ash for skincare for centuries. Volcanic ash has a high content of sulfur which is known to have antibacterial, antifungal, exfoliating and anti-inflammatory properties. Topical applications can be useful for treating acne, fungal infections, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, and eczema.

W

Water
Found in nearly every cosmetic on the market, water is added to cosmetics to dissolve solid ingredients so that they can be absorbed into the skin. Water is also the most basic cleanser and can be used to remove oils, dirt, and bacteria from the skin. It is, however, important to not overexpose the skin to water, as it can deplete your skin of its natural oils.


Wine Extract
This extract is made from wine and has a high content of a potent antioxidant called resveratrol. This extract possesses anti-aging and cancer fighting properties. Topical applications of this compound remove free radicals that cause premature aging of the skin and contribute to the development of skin cancers. This is beneficial for the reduction of wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin, as well as, reducing the risk of skin cancer.

X

Xanthan Gum
This sugar is produced by mixing fermented sugars with a specific type of bacteria. It can be found commonly in food, medications, and cosmetics. Although it doesn’t have any important effect on the skin, it can improve the quality of cosmetic products in several ways. It is able to bind different ingredients together, prevent the separation of ingredients, thicken gels and liquids, and improve the shelf life of products.

Z

Zinc Oxide
This ingredient is a synthetic white powder made from the mineral zinc. It has been shown to have skin soothing, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties. Topical applications of this ingredient have been proven to be effective for blocking UV radiation, making it a common ingredient in many sunscreens. It's also capable of treating several skin disorders including skin infections, acne, eczema, rosacea, dark spots, warts, eczema, skin ulcers, diaper rash, itching, and minor wounds.