Skincare Dictionary information are lifted from the following open-accessed scientific journals; patents; government, medical, and industry-reviewed databases; whitepapers; lexicons and encyclopedias; and university research websites:
Last Updated December 12, 2018
 
1,2 Hexanediol
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6013248.html
 
Acer Saccharum (Sugar Maple) Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4277239/
 
Acetyl hexapeptide-8
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24754410
 
Acrylates/C l0-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer
https://hpd.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/household/brands?tbl=chem&id=1468
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24575934
 
Allantoin
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25880800
 
Allium Cepa (Onion) Bulb Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3390235/
 
Aloe Vera
https://www.bcm.edu/news/skin-and-hair/benefits-of-using-aloe-vera
 
Althaea Rosea Flower Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2504193
 
Angelica Polymorpha Sinesis Root Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26305727
 
Anthemis Nobilis Flower (Chamomile) Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995283/
 
Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/
 
Arnica Montana Flower Extract
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/arnica-montana-flower-extract
 
Ascorbic Acid
https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-C
 
Bambusa Arundinacea Stem Extract
  1. Tanaka A., Zhu Q. et al. Biological activities and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different parts of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Molecules 19, 8238-60 (2014)
  2. Wang J., Yue YD. et al. TLC screening for antioxidant activity of extracts from fifteen bamboo species and identification of antioxidant flavone glycosides from leaves of Bambusa. textilis McClure. Molecules 17, 12297-311 (2012)

 
Bentonite
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5632318/
 
Betula Platyphylla Japonica Bark Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527166/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3899119/
 
BHT
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8493816
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12396675
 
Biotin
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318724.php
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4989391/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757853/
 
Bisabolol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3834722/
 
Borage Officinalis (Borage) Oil (Omega-3 and Omega-6)
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-596/borage

Butylene Glycol
https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/jsp/LoginAuth.jsp?pageName2=IngredInfoSearchResultPage.jsp&loginStatus=Fail
 
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/
 
C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/c12-15-alkyl-benzoate
 
Calamine
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4120804/
 
Camphor
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-709/camphor
 
Caprylhydroxamic Acid
http://www.caprylhydroxamicacid.com/
 
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7738800
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19296892
 
Carbomer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15630996
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25854849
 
Carica (Papaya) Fruit Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4471117/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579659/
 
Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3650500/
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/carthamus-tinctorius-safflower-seed-oil-0
 
Cellulose
https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/organic-chemistry/cellulose
 
Centella Asiatica Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116297/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3834700/
 
Ceramide
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12553851
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16060709
 
Ceratonia Siliqua Gum
https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/carob-gum
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133875/
 
Cetyl Ethylhexanoate
https://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/cetearyl-ethylhexanoate-0
https://patents.google.com/patent/US6096326A/en
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1600-0846.2007.00246.x
 
Chlorphenesin
https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/chlorphenesin
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/chlorphenesin-0
 
Cholesterol
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cholesterol
https://heartuk.org.uk/health-and-high-cholesterol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583891/
 
CI 15985
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/61817#section=Top
 
CI 16255
http://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/scientific-advice/jecfa/jecfa-additives/detail/en/c/162/
 
Citric Acid
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047947/
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/citric-acid
 
Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Fruit Extract
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/citrus-aurantium-dulcis-orange-peel-extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5044959/
 
Citrus Limon (Lemon) Fruit Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10568210
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10713866
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3626961/
 
Cocamidopropyl Betaine
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18627690
https://www.encyclopedia.com/manufacturing/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/soaps-detergents
https://www.britannica.com/science/surfactant
 
Cyclopentasiloxane
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22247236
https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/organic-chemistry/silicone45
 
Dead Sea Mud (Sea Silt)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15689218
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22503590
 
Decapeptide-12
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1069191-treatment
http://www.ijdvl.com/article.asp?issn=0378-6323;year=2017;volume=83;issue=1;spage=9;epage=18;aulast=Pai
 
Dimethicone
https://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/dimeticone
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3654275/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4025519/
 
Dimethyl Isosorbide
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1871047
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27922205
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027320/
 
Dimethyl MEA
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15675889
 
Diospyros Kaki Leaf Extract
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Persimmon
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0102695X17301011
 
Dipotassium Glycyrrhizinate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12100859
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3997206/
 
Dipropylene Glycol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064775
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917678/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29059092
 
Disiloxane
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Disiloxane#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699886/
 
Disodium EDTA
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12396676
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/edta
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4066975/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC175941/
 
D-Panthenol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982351
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/D-Panthenol#section=Chemical-Vendors
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27425824
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4794562/
 
Dromiceius (Emu) Oil
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-825/emu-oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4812284/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17638122
 
Epilobium Angustifolium Leaf Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23796429
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28454190
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27215200
 
Ethoxydiglycol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11440082
 
Eucalyptus Globulus (Eucalyptus) Leaf Oil
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-700/eucalyptus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5435909/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606594/
 
Eyeliss
https://patents.google.com/patent/US7160560B2/en
 
Ferulic Acid
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2127228/
 
Fomes Officinalis (Mushroom) Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786837/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327132274_The_Use_of_Plants_in_Skin-Care_Products_Cosmetics_and_Fragrances_Past_and_Present
 
Frankincense Serrata Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117114
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3309643/
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-63/indian-frankincense
 
Glucosamine
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17716251
 
Glycerin
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/glycerol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18510666
 
Glyceryl Stearate/PEG 100 Stearate
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/About-us
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4505343/
 
Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14522625
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3663177/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841253/
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9284/2/2/48/htm
 
Grapeseed Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4802053/
 
Haloxyl
https://www.dietsinreview.com/diet_column/09/haloxyl-review/
https://thedermreview.com/haloxyl-review/
 
Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214789/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524272/

HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer
https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/HDIply122015TR.pdf

Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22995032
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28707186

Honey Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24305429
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5406168/

Hydrogenated Polydecene
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5908267/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324572011_Emollient_treatment_of_atopic_dermatitis_latest_evidence_and_clinical_considerations
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19159377

Hydrolyzed Collagen
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507709/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19159377
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583892/
 
Hydroxyacetophenone
http://chemical-centre.com/d/982327/d/symsameh.pdf
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/4_-Hydroxyacetophenone#section=Top
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/metabolite
https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-are-Metabolites.aspx

Hydroxyethylcellulose
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/4327536#section=Top
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/hydroxyethylcellulose
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3417877/

Hydroxypinacolone Retinoate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25876142
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5172479/
 
Illicium Verum (Anise) Fruit Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4212851/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22971899
https://academicjournals.org/journal/JMPR/article-abstract/874ACEA19075

Iron Powder
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998023/
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/iron-oxides-0

Isopropyl Alcohol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2941579
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/isopropyl-alcohol
 
Isopropyl Myristate
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/isopropyl_myristate#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498395/
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/isopropyl-myristate
 
Jojoba Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24442052
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/
 
Kaolin
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904249/
https://www.britannica.com/science/kaolin
 
Laureth-7
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4651417/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002407/

Lavandula Officinalis (Lavender) Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880962/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3612440/
 
Lecithin
https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports-and-everyday-life/food-and-drink/food-and-cooking/lecithin
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11358109
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3867246/

Leontopodium Alpinum Cell Culture Extract (Edelweiss)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3474292/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16446066
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232649377_Anti-Inflammatory_Effects_of_Concentrated_Ethanol_Extracts_of_Edelweiss_Leontopodium_alpinum_Cass_Callus_Cultures_towards_Human_Keratinocytes_and_Endothelial_Cells
 
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3673383/
 
Malpighia Glabra (Acerola) Fruit Extract
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-608/acerola
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579659/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19060403

Malus Domestica Fruit Cell Culture Extract
https://www.britannica.com/plant/apple-fruit-and-tree
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC442131/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5674215/
https://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/agriculture-and-horticulture/horticulture/tissue-culture

Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1360273/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4334616/
 
Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813175/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21144345
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4911957/
https://nccih.nih.gov/health/peppermintoil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624208
 
Methyl Perfluorobutyl Ether
https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2008070368A2/en
 
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5372953/
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Poonam_Mittal/publication/50265972_Effect_of_topical_application_of_methylsulfonylmethane_MSM_EDTA_on_pitting_edema_and_oxidative_stress_in_a_double_blind_placebo-controlled_study/links/5443dbc80cf2a76a3ccd6884/Effect-of-topical-application-of-methylsulfonylmethane-MSM-EDTA-on-pitting-edema-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study.pdf
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/32/4/32_4_651/_article/-char/ja/
https://patents.google.com/patent/US4296130A/en
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-522/msm-methylsulfonylmethane
 
Mineral Oil
https://www.britannica.com/technology/mineral-oil
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2012.00752.x
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22994201

Myristoyl Hexapeptide-4
https://www.creative-peptides.com/product/myristoyl-hexapeptide-item-cpc1637-151.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25226016

Neopentyl Glycol Dicaprylate/Dicaprate
https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/magdae092017final.pdf
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/glossary/letter_s

Niacinamide
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16029679
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17147561

Nicotinoyl Tripeptide-1
http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=KR2012004356
https://www.webmd.com/beauty/skin-lightening-products#1

Nonapeptide-1
https://www.researchgate.net/topic/Melanocytes
https://www.creative-peptides.com/product/nonapeptide-item-cpc1650-158.html

Oenothera Biennis (Evening Primrose) Oil
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1006/evening-primrose-oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20000302
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116039/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4252667/
 
Oligopeptide-1
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583892/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5108505/

Olive Leaf Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933436/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4227229/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518972
 
Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-12 & Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-14
http://ue.poznan.pl/data/upload/articles/20170918/4e5eb3570348660912/cosmetic-product-development.pdf#page=113
https://www.creative-peptides.com/product/palmitoyl-hexapeptide-item-cpc1628-163.html
 
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4950680/
http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9284/4/2/16/pdf

PEG/PPG-18/18 Dimethicone
https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/safety-assessment-dimethicone-crosspolymers-used-cosmetics
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1532687/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884743/

PEG-10 Isostearate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26191379
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011869
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22913650
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3109/10915818309142002

PEG-20 Glyceryl Triisostearate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4505343/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280218871_Safety_Evaluation_of_Polyethylene_Glycol_PEG_Compounds_for_Cosmetic_Use

PEG-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19995365
https://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/peg-60-hydrogenated-castor-oil

Persea Grattisima (Avocado) Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1676360

Phenoxyethanol
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/2-phenoxyethanol#section=Top

Plankton Extract
https://www.britannica.com/science/plankton
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564164/

Polyacrylamide C13-14 Isoparaffin
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16537204
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4927678

Polyethylene
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/polyethylene
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17365139
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/polyethylene-0

Polymethylsilsesquioxane
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4938278/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1532687/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2918339/
 
Polysilicone-11
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257951/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2918339/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19456912
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1532687/
 
Polysorbate 20
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Tween_20#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24749737

Polysorbate 80
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5281955
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14560928
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23102558
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12616296

Portulaca Oleracea Extract
https://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/plants/plants/purslane
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618092/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3931201/

Potassium Hydroxide
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/potassium_hydroxide#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3312655/

Potassium Sorbate
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/potassium_sorbate#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28673419
https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=182.3640

Propanediol
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/1_3-propanediol#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5956275/

Propylene Glycol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3016930/
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/1_2-propanediol#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19469997
 
Prunus Amygdalus (Sweet Almond) Oil
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129403
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992143/

Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12542535
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29672394
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8555030
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637937

Pyrus Malus (Apple) Fruit Extract
https://www.britannica.com/plant/apple-fruit-and-tree
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC442131/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5674215/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813915/

Resveratrol
http://www.dermatologytimes.com/dermatology/resveratrol-longevity-molecule
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254804
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060966/

Retinol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699641/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574737/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17515510
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578346

Rhododendron Ferrugineum Leaf Cell Extract
https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/203007/2758537
https://mibellebiochemistry.com/app/uploads/2015/03/Alpine-Rose-Active_Ecocert_Certified_Alpine_Rose_Active_Combats_Aging_by_Protecting_Skin_Proteins_CosmeticsDesign_02_2011.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5674215/
https://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/agriculture-and-horticulture/horticulture/tissue-culture

Rhus Semialata Gall Extract
https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/pdf/10.1055/s-2007-969561.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/scientific-contributions/38516026_Jong-Kyung_Youm
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702445/
https://www.science.gov/topicpages/g/galla+chinensis+extract

Rosa Canina Fruit (Rosehip) Oil
https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rose-hip
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5485961/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/

Rubus Suavissimus (Raspberry) Leaf Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3569896/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4931538/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2680688/

Saccharum Officinarum (Sugar Cane) Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3900339/

Salicylic Acid
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4554394/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1535287
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4688384/

Salix Nigra (Willow) Bark Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3947866/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921758/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26347269
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4554394/

Sodium Cocoyl Apple Amino Acids
https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/Alkyl%20Amides_DR.pdf

Sodium Hyaluronate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583886/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3970829/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1772195/

Sodium Lauroyl Glutamate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8033544
https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/alkyl_amides_0.pdf

Sodium Polyacrylate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513039/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5908267/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14572299

Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) Callus Culture Extract
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00253-018-9279-8
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/elsc.201800066
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850026/
http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9284/5/4/55/pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21609336

Sorbitol
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/D-Sorbitol#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752031
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168246/
 
Sulfur
https://www.rd.com/health/beauty/benefits-of-sulfur/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15303787
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047935/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17147562

Talc
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6697622
https://www.encyclopedia.com/earth-and-environment/minerals-mining-and-metallurgy/mineralogy-and-crystallography/talc
https://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/productsingredients/ingredients/ucm293184.htm

Titanium Dioxide
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3423755/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288463/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3781714/

Tocopherol
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4976416/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5514576/
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Vitamin_E
 
Tocopheryl Acetate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4976416/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5514576/
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Vitamin_E

Tourmaline
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3699878/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007008/

Trehalose
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2708026/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102588/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5718624/

Trideceth-10
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/20849296#section=Top
https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/trideceth-10
https://patents.google.com/patent/US7410937B2/en
https://patents.google.com/patent/US4948578A/en

Triethanolamine
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/triethanolamine#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23696578

Vaccinium Myrtillus Fruit/Leaf Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92770/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3193617/

Viscum Album (Mistletoe) Leaf Extract
https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/59242
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4698677/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25813519
 
Vitamin B5
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065280/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12113650

Vitamin E
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Vitamin_E
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4976416/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5514576/
 
Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Callus Culture Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153648/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27208639
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5248468/
http://jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/06_11/pdf/385_06_11_article.pdf

Volcanic Ash
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3750325/
https://www.rd.com/health/beauty/benefits-of-sulfur/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15303787
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047935/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17147562
https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/msa/ammin/article-abstract/99/5-6/1085/46564/adsorption-of-sulfur-dioxide-on-volcanic-ashes?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Wine Extract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813915/
http://www.dermatologytimes.com/dermatology/resveratrol-longevity-molecule
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254804
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060966/
 
Xanthan Gum
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25854849
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5044959/
https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/xanthan-gum
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-340/xanthan-gum
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27645318
 
Zinc Oxide
https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/compounds-and-elements/zinc-oxide
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4120804/